Thursday, July 14, 2011

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Practice Questions

Q 1.
Clearly explain the difference between collection of data through questionnaires and schedules ?
Both questionnaire and schedule are popularly used methods of collecting data in research surveys. There is much resemblance in the nature of these two methods and this fact made many people to remark that from a practical point of view, the two methods can be taken to be the same. But from the technical point of view there is difference between the two. The important points of difference are as under:

  1. The questionnaire is generally sent through mail to informants to be answered as specified in covering letter, but otherwise without further assistance from the sender. The schedule is generally filled out by the research worker or the enumerator, who can interpret questions when necessary.
  2. To collect data through questionnaire is relatively cheap and economical since we have to spend money only in preparing the questionnaire and in mailing the same to respondents. Here no field staff required. To collect data through schedules is relatively more expensive since considerable amount of money has to be spent in appointing enumerators and in importing training to them. Money is also spent in appointing enumerators and in importing training to them. Money is also spend in preparing schedules.
  3. Non-response is usually high in case of questionnaire as many people do not respond and many return the questionnaire without answering all questions. Bias due to non-response often remains indeterminate. As against this, non-response is generally very low in case of schedules because these re filled by enumerators who are able to get answers to all questions. But there remains the danger of interviewer bias and cheating.
  4. In case of questionnaire, it is not always clear as to who replies, but in case of schedule the identity of respondent known.
  5. The questionnaire method is likely to be very slow since many respondents do not return the questionnaire in time despite several reminders, but in case of schedules the information is collected well in time as they are filled by enumerators.
  6. Personal contact is generally not possible in case of the questionnaire method as questionnaires are sent to respondents by post, who also in turn returns the same by post. But in case of schedules direct personal contact is established with respondents.
  7. Questionnaire method can be used only when respondents are literate and cooperative, but in case of schedules the information can be gathered even when the respondents happen to be illiterate.
  8. Wider and more representative distribution of sample is possible under the questionnaire method, but in respect of schedules there usually remains the difficulty in sending enumerators over a relatively wider area.
  9. Risk of collecting incomplete and wrong information is relatively more under the questionnaire method, particularly when people are unable to understand questions properly. But in case of schedules, the information collected is generally complete and accurate as enumerators can remove the difficulties, if any, faced by respondents in correctly understanding the questions. As a result, the information collected through schedules is relatively more accurate than that obtained through questionnaires.
  10. The success of questionnaire method lies more on the quality of the questionnaire itself, but in case of schedules much depends upon the honesty and competence of enumerators.
  11. In order to attract the attention of respondents, the physical appearance of questionnaire must be quite attractive, but this may not be so incase of schedules as they are to be filled in by enumerators and not by respondents
  12. Along with schedules, observation method can also be used but such a thing is not possible while collecting data through questionnaires.

Monday, May 16, 2011


(a) Nominal Scale
(b) Ordinal Scale
(c) Interval Scale
(d) Ratio Scale

Sources of  Error in Measurement
(a) Respondent
(b) Situation
(c) Measurer
(c) Instrument

Saturday, March 12, 2011


Management initiates and determines the activities of an enterprise. It makes plants, offices, computers, materials, and equipment productive through human effort. It gives competence and effectiveness to organizations in rendering goods and services to society. The aims of the management are to motivate the employees in the organization to achieve a high degree of work performance in competitive situations, utilize resources efficiently, and to provide high quality goods and services. In trying to achieve these aims, the manager faces many hurdles and problems, which he needs to, overcome and solve. He does this by taking appropriate decisions.

 A decision-making situation is one in which a manager is faces with a number of possible courses of action to solve a problem and a number of possible states and conditions of problem situations, which arise with uncertainty. The manger, in order to be effective, has to choose the curse of action which is the most suitable against a set of criteria (like minimum cost and maximum profit in a particular situation though in practice there may be other criteria).The procedures for decision making in an organization range from simple rules to complex analysis, individual decision-making to group decision making, from application of precedence and experience to considerable amount of enquiry and investigation.

Defining Research

Research is defined as a systematic, self-critical enquiry. The enquiry is aimed at understanding a thing or phenomenon or solving a problem. When an enquiry is aimed at understanding, it is practical or commercial use. When the enquiry is aimed at applying the available knowledge for practical or commercial use, for solving a problem faced in practice, it is termed as applied research.

Research is a systematic enquiry, whether scientific or otherwise. Scientific research, on the other hand, employing scientific method, (to be dealt with later in the chapter) has well defined objectives and methods, generates dependable data, reliable and unambiguous findings, and justifiable conclusions.


Module – I:

Nature and Scope of Business Research, Identification of Research problem, Research objective, Type of Business Research, Research Process, Research Designs: Exploratory, Descriptive, Experimental and Observational, Planning and formulation of Research Projects, Preparation of questionnaire and schedules, Measurement problem and scaling techniques. Collection of data: Primary and Secondary data, Purpose of research application, Type of research reports, Structure of Research report, Report writing and Presentation. SPSS and Report Presentation: Use of Statistical package for social sciences.

Module – II

Sampling: Probabilistic and Non-probabilistic sampling. Methods of drawing samples: Lottery methods and using random number table, Sampling Vs. complete enumeration, Sampling and Non sampling errors, Concept of different sampling methods: Simple random Sampling, Stratified random sampling, Cluster sampling, Multistage sampling.

Module – III

Data analysis: Editing, Coding, transformation of data, Basic data analysis, setting of hypothesis, hypothesis testing, Cluster and Factor analysis (Concept only). Hypothesis: Null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis, Testing of hypothesis, Type I and Type II errors, Sampling distribution and Standard errors, Test of Significance: Small sample tests: t and F tests, Large sample test: Z test, Chi-Square tests: Goodness of fit and test of association. Non-parametric tests: Sign test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Run test, Man-
Whitney U test, Randomness test; Analysis of Variance: One way and two-way Classifications.


Recommended Books:

1.    Business Research Methods, Cooper, Schindler, TMH
2.    Management Research Methodology,  Krishnaswamy, Sir Kumar, Pearson
3.    Research Methodology, C. R. Kothari, Newage Publication
4.    Research Methodology, Zeikmund, Cengage
5.    Research Methodology, Paneer Selvam, PHI
6.    Research Methodology, Prasanta Sarangi, Taxmann
7.    A Text Book of Research Methodology, AKPC Swain, Kalyani
8.    SPSS for Windows, Step; George and Mallery, Pearson
Data Analysis with SPSS, Carver and Nash, Cengage.

MBA 211: Research Methodology and SPSS – LAB

Learning the Basics of SPSS
Looking at Frequency Distributions and Descriptive Statistics.
Presenting Data in Graphic Form.
Testing Research Hypotheses for Two Independent Samples.
Testing Research Hypotheses about Two Related Sampled.
Comparing Independent Samples with One-way ANOVA.
Comparing related Samples with One-way ANOVA
Measuring the Simple Relationship between Two Variables
Describing the Linear Relationship between Two Variables
Assessing the Association between Two Categorical Variables.
Entering Data using Programs other than SPSS.

Recommended Books:
1)      Ready, Set, Go! A Student Guide to SPSS, Thomas Pavkov, Kent Pierce, TMH.
2)      SPSS for Windows step by step, George and Mallery, Pearson